Erika’s Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography–Erika Hoekstra

MacPhee, J. (2009, February 17). [Web log message]. Retrieved from < street_art_and_social_movement.html>

This blog describes the history of some street art groups and movements that have played a part greater social movements around the world throughout history.  In places like South Africa, Nicaragua, France, and Argentina, graffiti has been a source used to create change.

Graffiti south africa. (n.d.). Retrieved from <>

This article specifically discussing the role of graffiti in the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa throughout the past few decades.  It is an example of how the youth in an area can come together to create their own form of social change in their communities.  It also represents the larger picture of South African social change that came out of the 1980’s.

Bell, M. (n.d.). 1979: Sandinista rebels take nicaraguan capital. Retrieved from <>

In this article by Bell, he talks about the Sandinista rebels overtaking Nicaragua, ultimately overthrowing President Anastasio Somoza.  This is relevant in my article discussing historical street art, because during this era in Nicaragua, street artists protested and promoted change.  Using the walls as a form of media, since the US controlled almost all news outlets.

Jr’s ted prize wish: Use art to turn the world inside out [Web]. (2011). Retrieved from <>

In this 2011 TED talk, a French artist speaks of his experience with art and street art.  He discusses how art can be a great medium to change the world through and inspiring speech and video.

Bartolomeo, B. (2001). Cement or canvas: Aerosol art & the changing face of graffiti in the 21st century. Informally published manuscript, Anthropology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, Retrieved from <>

A master’s thesis done by Bradley Bartolomeo from Union College of New York, discusses every aspect of street art regarding the controversy around it and its effectiveness towards culminating social change.  He discusses how graffiti can be used to revolt against the public and political sphere, while relaying a deeper message.

Cyrcle. (Performer) (2012). Voice of art pt. 1 – street artists cyrcle vs. illegal billboards [Web]. Retrieved from <>

This video follows 3 graffiti artists that make up the group Cyrcle, out of LA who fight against the illegal billboarding that happens not only in Southern California, but around the US and the world.  These artists explain that if the city is the canvas to these large corporations, it should be a canvas to them as well.  With their signature artistry, they have been able to begin a movement in the Los Angeles region.

Pelisek, C. (2008, April 23). Billboards gone wild: 4,000 illegal billboards choke l.a.’s neighborhoods. LA Weekly, Retrieved from <>

The article plays off of the video of the tagging group Cyrcle and discusses more in depth the issue of illegal billboards in LA.  How they “choke” the city with advertisements and messages that are illegal plastered everyone, yet ‘ignored’ by city councilmen.

Story, L. (2007). Anywhere the eye can see, it’s likely to see an ad. New York Times, Retrieved from <>

This New York Times article discusses how frequently Americans are exposed to advertisements.  Up to 5,000 ads a day by US citizens, most of the time unconsciously, without registering what we are seeing.  The article discusses the effects of these advertisements and also how much commercial exposure has exploded in the last few decades.

D’Cruze, Rachael. “Underground Inequalities- Graffiti Culture.” Hackwriters. N.p., Dec. 2003. Web. 27 Apr. 2013. <>.

Rachael reflects on the portrayal of graffiti in the media and how street art is growing into a business.  She discusses that it is mostly incorporated with vandalasim, but that times are changing and now it is becoming in some areas a form of modern art.

“Agenda Setting Theory.” University of Twente. N.p., 26 Feb. 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.

< clusters/Mass Media/Agenda-Setting_Theory.doc/>.

This article discusses the theory of agenda setting, which is used in mass media to try to mold the minds of its viewers.  This is a crucial aspect of the graffiti debate, because often times those exposed as graffiti artists are racially profiled as dangerous or destructive, when sometimes their actions are for the good of the people and against the bad.

“Gang Injunction – MTA Tagging Crew – Los Angeles Graffiti News Report.” YouTube. YouTube, 23 June 2010. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <>.

This video is an example of how street artists are profiled in the news.  The news choses to focus on the negative, instead of the graffiti artists who are creating positive change in our country.  This is an example of agenda setting, which I believe has contributed to the negative view of many towards street art.

Melnick, Lizette Alvarez And Jordan. “Miami, City of Sun And Beaches, Is Now About Art.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Nov. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.


This article discusses the movement of modern graffiti in Miami.  It is an example of how graffiti is now starting to be accepted in large cities for its positive and creative ability to provoke social change.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s